When I was in high school I read a biography of Nietzsche that suggested Wagner and Nietzsche’s sister collaborated to popularize his work under their anti-semitic nationalistic rubric. (I wish I remember the name of the book, but girls and pot were as important to me as philosophy then—if not more so.) Their campaign drove him to despair, but the Wagnerian interpretation was too brash and noisy for his audience to take Nietzsche’s word on what he meant.

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